Practices and technologies for reducing on-farm greenhouse gas emissions.

The actions on this page fall into three categories: those verified by science and available now, those where research is ongoing, and those under development that may be available in the future.

Many farmers are already using the current actions listed below. They won't work in all farm systems, and the reductions possible will vary from farm to farm. The actions also need to be considered in the context of other desired outcomes, e.g. water quality or animal welfare. Right now, striving for further efficiency gains is key.

Current actions

These actions have been comprehensively researched under New Zealand conditions and there's scientifically robust data available proving they can reduce on-farm greenhouse gas emissions. They're also captured in New Zealand's greenhouse gas inventory—the national system used for reporting emissions and mitigations. 

Potential actions

A number of mitigation practices and technologies that are often promoted as being able to reduce emissions have not been included in the list of Current Actions. This is because there isn't enough robust scientific information available yet to have confidence in their efficacy. In addition, the practices are not yet recognised in New Zealand's greenhouse gas accounting system. The practices are listed below, and you can read more about them on the Potential actions page.

Soil carbon

  • Establishing diverse swards and modifying grazing regimes
  • Adding organic elements
  • Keeping soils vegetated
  • Full inversion tillage
  • Improving irrigation management

Nitrous oxide

  • Winter housing / stand-off pads


  • Manure storage and management

Future actions

A significant research programme has been underway in New Zealand since the early 2000s, exploring new technologies for reducing on-farm emissions. The science is complex and ongoing, but these options are showing real promise and may be available in the coming years.

See the Future actions page to read more about: